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History and Development of centrifuges

Ancient China, people live with one end of the rope pottery, hand the other end of the rope, swinging rotation pots, squeeze out the centrifugal force generated in the jar of honey, this is the early application of the principle of centrifugal separation.

Industrial centrifuge was born in Europe, such as the mid-19th century, has emerged with a three-textile dewatering centrifuge, and the fractional crystallization of sugar with a sugar factory on the suspension of centrifuge. The first batch of centrifuges are operating and artificial slag.

As the body improve unloading slag, in the 1930s there has been continuous operation of the centrifuge, but also due to intermittent operation of the centrifuge to achieve automatic control to be developed.

Industrial centrifuge according to the structure and separation requirements, can be divided into filter centrifuge, centrifuge and separator categories.

Centrifuge has a speed around its own axis of rotation of the cylinder, called the drum, usually driven by electric motors. Suspension (or emulsion) by adding the drum, driven by rapidly rotating with the drum at the same speed, the centrifugal force of the separation of components, and were discharged. Typically, the higher drum speed, the better the separation.

Centrifuge action principle with centrifugal filter and centrifugal two. Centrifugal filter is to make the suspension in a centrifugal force field generated by centrifugal pressure acting on the filter media, so that the liquid into the filtrate through the filter media, and solid particles are trapped in the filter media surface, in order to achieve liquid - solid separation; centrifugal sedimentation is the use of suspension (or emulsion) different densities of each component in the rapid settlement of the centrifugal force field in the hierarchical principle, to achieve liquid - solid (or liquid - liquid) separation.

There is also a quasi-experimental analysis of the separator, can be clarified liquid and solid particles concentration, or liquid - liquid separation, such separators have pressure, vacuum, freezing conditions, operating under different structural types.

Centrifuge separation performance measure an important indicator of the separation factor. It said separation of the material in the drum is the centrifugal force suffered the ratio of its gravity, the greater the separation factor is usually the more rapid separation, separation, the better. Industrial centrifuge separation factor is generally 100 to 20,000, speeding tube separator separation factor of up to 62,000, analysis speed separation separation factor of up to 610,000. Decided to centrifuge capacity, another factor is the drum work area, work area capacity is also large.

Filtering centrifuges and centrifuge, rely mainly on the expansion of the drum to increase the drum diameter to the circumference of the face; separator wall in addition to the drum circle, there are additional face, such as disc separator disc and the chamber separator of the inner cylinder, significantly increases the deposition face.

In addition, the solid particles in suspension more details of the separation more difficult, solution filtrate, or separation of removing fine particles will increase, in this case, the centrifuge requires a higher separation factor can be effectively separated; suspension liquid viscosity, the separation slowed down; suspensions or emulsions of each component of the large density difference, favorable to the centrifugal, centrifugal filters and suspension components are not asked to density difference.

Choose centrifuges required under suspension (or emulsion) in the size and concentration of solid particles, solid and liquid (or two liquids) the density difference, fluid viscosity, residue (or sediment) characteristics, and separation of comprehensive analysis of requirements, meet the residues (sludge) moisture content and the filtrate (liquid separation) to clarify the degree requirements, an initial choice of the type of centrifuge used. Then press capacity and automated operations requirements and specifications to determine the type of centrifuge, and finally verified through actual testing.

Typically, for particles with size greater than 0.01 mm of suspension, the choice of filter centrifuge; for small particles in suspension or compressible deformation, are advised to use centrifuge; for suspensions with low solids, tiny particles and demanding clarity on the liquid, the separator should be used.

Centrifuge development trend of the future will be to strengthen the separation performance, the development of large-scale centrifuge, improve discharge residue institutions, increasing private and combination of drum centrifuge, separation theory and research to enhance centrifugal separation process optimization control technology.

Enhanced separation performance, including increased drum speed; increase in the centrifugal separation process new impetus; accelerate the speed to push slag; increase the length of the centrifugal separator drum to extend the time and so on. Development of large-scale centrifuge, mainly to increase the use of double-sided drum drum diameter and increase processing capacity to handle material per unit volume of equipment investment, energy consumption and maintenance costs reduced. Theory, the main fluid flow position of the drum and the residues within the formation mechanism, study of the minimum separation and processing capacity is calculated.

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